International Network on Limnology of Drylands (INLD) is created with the overall goal of promoting the construction of intercontinental projects designed to obtain an understanding of the functioning and conservation patterns of aquatic ecosystems in worldwide dry regions, with emphasis on biodiversity analyses (multitaxon approach) in comparative scale. Drylands account for nearly 40% of the world’s surface area, encompassing hyper-arid, arid, semi-arid and sub-humid regions, most of them within in developing countries inhabited by more than one-third of the world population, covering extensive areas of all continents.
A concerning scenario, characterized by unstable spatial-temporal rainfall distribution, increasing water demand and multiple uses, is accompanied by increasing vulnerability to climate changes and other anthropogenic impacts. The main issues approached are about the effects of the multiple stressors on the functioning of dryland temporary and intermittent aquatic ecosystems, especially regarding the loss of species diversity, ecosystem services and water scarcity. The results will be informed for managers and policymakers to improve efficiency at protecting biological diversity in drylands regions.